According to experts, 80% of learning is visual, which means that if your child is having difficulty seeing clearly, his or her learning can be affected. This also goes for infants who develop and learn about the world around them through their sense of sight. To ensure that your children have the visual resources they need to grow and develop normally, their eyes and vision should be checked by an eye doctor at certain stages of their development.
According to the American Optometric Association (AOA) children should have their eyes examined by an eye doctor at 6 months, 3 years, at the start of school, and then at least every 2 years following. If there are any signs that there may be a vision problem or if the child has certain risk factors (such as developmental delays, premature birth, crossed or lazy eyes, family history or previous injuries) more frequent exams are recommended. A child that wears eyeglasses or contact lenses should have his or her eyes examined yearly. Children’s eyes can change rapidly as they grow.
Eye Exams in Preschool Children: Starting 4-5
The toddler and preschool age is a period where children experience drastic growth in intellectual and motor skills. During this time they will develop the fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination and perceptual abilities that will prepare them to read and write, play sports and participate in creative activities such as drawing, sculpting or building. This is all dependent upon good vision and visual processes.
This is the age when parents should be on the lookout for signs of lazy eye (amblyopia) - when one eye doesn’t see clearly, or crossed eyes (strabismus) - when one or both eyes turns inward or outward. The earlier these conditions are treated, the higher the success rate.
Parents should also be aware of any developmental delays having to do with object, number or letter recognition, color recognition or coordination, as the root of such problems can often be visual. If you notice your child squinting, rubbing his eyes frequently, sitting very close to the tv or reading material, or generally avoiding activities such as puzzles or coloring, it is worth a trip to the eye doctor.
Eye Exams in School-Aged Children: Ages 6-18
Undetected or uncorrected vision problems can cause children and teens to suffer academically, socially, athletically and personally. If your child is having trouble in school or afterschool activities there could be an underlying vision problem. Proper learning, motor development, reading, and many other skills are dependent upon not only good vision, but also the ability of your eyes to work together. Children that have problems with focusing, reading, teaming their eyes or hand-eye coordination will often experience frustration, and may exhibit behavioral problems as well. Often they don’t know that the vision they are experiencing is abnormal, so they aren’t able to express that they need help.
In addition to the symptoms written above, signs of vision problems in older children include:
- Short attention span
- Frequent blinking
- Avoiding reading
- Tilting the head to one side
- Losing their place often while reading
- Double vision
- Poor reading comprehension
The Eye Exam at Our Mississauga Eye Care Clinic
In addition to basic visual acuity (distance and near vision) an eye exam may assess the following visual skills that are required for learning and mobility:
- Binocular vision: how the eyes work together as a team
- Peripheral Vision
- Color Vision
- Hand-eye Coordination
The doctor will also examine the area around the eye and inside the eye to check for any eye diseases or health conditions. You should tell the doctor any relevant personal history of your child such as a premature birth, developmental delays, family history of eye problems, eye injuries or medications the child is taking. This would also be the time to address any concerns or issues your child has that might indicate a vision problem.
If the eye doctor does determine that your child has a vision problem, they may discuss a number of therapeutic options such as eyeglasses or contact lenses, an eye patch, vision therapy or Ortho-k, depending on the condition and the doctor’s specialty. Since some conditions are much easier to treat when they are caught early while the eyes are still developing, it is important to diagnose any eye and vision issues as early as possible.
Following the guidelines for children’s eye exams and staying alert to any signs of vision problems can help your child to reach his or her potential.
Children’s Vision – FAQ’s
The American Optometric Association (AOA) issued guidelines for how often children should go to an eye doctor for a comprehensive eye exam. According to these recommendations, infants should have their first ocular evaluation at 6 months of age. Routine eye exams should then follow at 3 years old and at 5-6 years old (prior to entering kindergarten or first grade). If they do not need vision correction, school-aged kids should have a complete eye assessment done every two years. Children who wear eyeglasses or contacts should have yearly examinations.
Yes, she should still have a complete eye exam.
Vision screenings in school are designed to identify gross vision problems. Yet a child can pass this screening and still have an eye condition that affects development, learning and performance in school. Studies have shown that up to 11 percent of kids who pass a school vision test actually have a vision difficulty that requires treatment.
In addition, a comprehensive eye evaluation by a qualified professional checks your child’s eye health, which is not included as a part of vision screening done in school.
Vision therapy or training can be understood as a specialized form of physical therapy for the ocular system. Highly personalized, it involves a customized set of eye exercises that are intended to correct visual problems. Lazy-eye (amblyopia), focusing problems, trouble with eye alignment and movement, and specific visual-perceptual disorders are some of the conditions that may be treated with vision therapy.
Therapy sessions are generally held in an optometrist’s office, but most courses of treatment include daily exercises to be done at home.
No. Yet children with learning problems often suffer from vision problems too. As the vision therapy corrects underlying ocular conditions, a child’s learning difficulty may be improved or resolved.
Most of the time a child’s resistance to wearing eyeglasses is settled through time and perseverance. Getting used to the feeling of wearing glasses can take some adaptation. It may help to put his glasses on immediately after he wakes up.
However, sometimes the child’s refusal to wear glasses is due to an incorrect prescription or uncomfortable frames. Recheck his prescription and make sure that his glasses fit well. Bring your child into the optometrist for a consultation.
Many frames for children come with an integrated elastic band to help keep the glasses sitting comfortably on your child’s head. Be sure to inquire about this option.
The odds of a successful cure are very good if she receives proper treatment. Medical research has demonstrated that the visual system can develop stronger visual acuity at up to 8-10 years of age.
Constant strabismus often requires surgery to straighten and align the eyes, and then therapy for amblyopia (“lazy-eye”) follows in order to enhance the success of the surgery. Eye patching and vision therapy are generally implemented as a means to help both eyes team and function together. For more information, discuss treatment options with your Optometrist and a referral to see a pediatric ophthalmologist who specializes in strabismus surgery may be required.
A very simple, straightforward stereopsis test will determine if your daughter has normal depth perception. During this testing, she will put on 3-D glasses and be asked to look at a chart across the room or at a number of objects in a specialized book. If reduced stereopsis is diagnosed, she will be advised to undergo vision therapy.
Recent studies suggest that myopia progression may be slowed or stopped in childhood. At present, there are four different types of treatment for myopia control: multifocal contact lenses, atropine eye drops, ortho-k and multifocal eyeglasses.
A professional eye doctor will conduct a comprehensive eye exam in order to determine your child’s candidacy for any of these potential treatments.
When reading or engaging in other close-up tasks, our eyes need to be converged (pointed inwards) slightly. Convergence insufficiency (CI) refers to the eyes’ inability to do this easily and comfortably. Headaches, eyestrain, blurred vision, fatigue and reading problems may result.
Convergence insufficiency is a common learning-related vision problem that’s typically treated well with vision therapy and/or reading glasses.
In general, 5 year old children can see 20/25 or better. Yet there are a number of possible reasons for his vision diagnosis. Visual acuity testing is highly subjective. Your child is asked to read small letters on a wall chart, and many kids simply give up – even though are able to read some of the smaller lines. Other children may claim that they can’t see the letters because they dream of wearing eyeglasses!
Keep in mind that vision screenings conducted at school are often compromised by many distractions. It’s wise to schedule a comprehensive eye exam with an eye doctor in order to confirm his prescription and rule out any eye health problems that may be affecting his visual acuity.
When one eye needs much stronger vision correction than the other eye, contact lenses are sometimes preferable to eyeglasses. Unequal lens powers in glasses can cause an unequal magnification effect, so the eyes transmit images to the brain that are not the same size. The brain may not be able to blend these two images into a single one, which often causes dizziness and nausea. In addition, your child’s eyeglasses may be unattractive and causing her to not give them a real chance to adapt.
Contact lenses obviously grant a nicer appearance, and they don’t cause as many problematic variations in image magnification. Even young children can handle wearing contact lenses, and one-day disposables or continuous wear lenses (worn consistently for up to 30 days) are possible options.
With amblyopia, one eye doesn’t see as clearly as the other eye, even with the best contact lenses in position. Vision in her weak eye may not be drastically improved with contacts, and vision therapy will probably be needed too. Best to discuss all her options with her Eye Doctor.
Annually is recommended. Children change quickly and often do not complain about vision and/or are unaware what ‘normal’ might be.
First routine eye exam is recommended by age 4. Parents should bring children in sooner if they have any concerns including if they notice an eye turn, head turning while gazing, the child bumps into things, whiteness in the pupil, or unusual reflections noticed in photographs.
We can use objective test which do not require the child to respond.
We often discuss vision problems as they relate to sitting in a classroom, but what about the playground or vision acuity’s effect on socialization and play?
In some cases a large undetected prescription (far sightedness or astigmatism) or an eye muscle imbalance (binocular vision) can make reading and learning a challenge. Once properly diagnosed and treated, reading and learning tasks can become much more comfortable visually.
This is very patient specific and task specific. Once the parent and child agree on the objectives and that the patient’s responsibility level is acceptable, we can properly assess each situation individually. For example, disposable contacts may be used specifically for a sport only if needed.
Yes. Tough, shatter & scratch resistant lenses are available along with flexible frame materials and durable hinges. Prescription sports goggles and swimwear may be an option as well.